Dr. Kyle: High Intensity Interval Training!

I’m sure you’ve heard the hype about high intensity interval training (HIIT) – bursts of exertion separated by short periods of recovery – sound tough, right? That’s because it is. The attention around HIIT has provoked researchers to further investigate it’s physiological benefits, which have been promising.

The problem with most workout programs is lack of intensity. People putt around the gym for about an hour, jump from one machine to the next without breaking a sweat. What’s the problem? Nothing, if your goal is to build strength. But from a physical fitness and weight loss perspective, you are overlooking HIIT’s cardiovascular and fat-incinerating benefits.

HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to increase muscle and accelerate fat loss. Intervals of activity and rest can vary between 30 seconds to a few minutes. The duration and intervals can be modified depending on the individual and goal in mind. The objective is to create a fast-paced and physically demanding workout that challenges our threshold of exercise intensity.

So why HIIT vs. cardio?

HIIT is most commonly compared to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). MICT, also known as steady state cardio, consists of long periods of activity at constant intensity. For example, 45 minutes of jogging at 5km/h is considered MICT. Although it provides significant cardiovascular improvements and may be a favourite for endurance training, HIIT can offer more!! Remember, you can’t go wrong with increasing the intensity of exercise. Let’s compare!

With regards to that pesky body fat, HIIT significantly reduces abdominal and visceral fat in both men and women (1). High intensity training, above 90% peak heart rate, was more effective at reducing whole-body adipose tissue. Many studies show HIIT is superior to MICT in improving aerobic fitness (2). Cardiovascular measures (VO2 max, contractile function, ejection fraction, respiratory fitness and endothelial function) significantly improved with 7-12-week HIIT programs. This holds true for people who have previously suffered from a cardiac incident. Implementing HIIT under supervision during cardiac rehabilitation can improve quality of life by enhancing their cardiorespiratory fitness. No deaths or cardiac events occurred during HIIT programs across all recent studies. What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger, right?

Additionally, studies have demonstrated greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, glucose regulation, HDL cholesterol, and blood pressure with HIIT compared to MICT (2,3). Improved insulin sensitivity allows the body to utilize glucose more efficiently as energy, instead of being stored as fat! By implementing HIIT with intermittent fasting, the body utilizes fat stores for energy, increasing fat oxidation and mobilization (4). HIIT is also more effective than MICT at reducing oxidative stress and inflammation (5). These benefits are observed in subjects across all age categories. HIIT doesn’t discriminate; all can experience the health advantages of HIIT.

HIIT is extremely efficient because we experience what’s known as “excess post-exercise oxygen consumption,” or EPOC – meaning we reap the calorie-burning effects hours after our workout.

During intensive exercise, energy stores are quickly depleted. Our carbohydrate stores, oxygen and other essential compounds are exhausted, resulting in an energy deficit. After HIIT, we eventually reach our normal resting level of metabolic function. Carb stores are replaced (with an appropriate diet), oxygen levels will increase, and body temperature will return to normal (6). These processes require energy, explaining why we continue to burn calories after exercise. Even though HIIT and MICT both induce EPOC, HITT increases lipid metabolism to a greater extent AND is extremely time efficient (6).

So whether you want to call it HIIT, interval training, circuit training, etc., say hello to the most time efficient and beneficial exercise available. Combining HIIT with intermittent fasting and a wholesome diet, expect accelerated fat loss and physical fitness improvements. So what are you waiting for? Let’s turn up the intensity to 11!

References:

1. Maillard F, Pereira B, Boisseau N. Effect of high-intensity interval training on total, abdominal and visceral fat mass: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018 Feb 1;48(2):269-88.

2. Hannan AL, Hing W, Simas V, Climstein M, Coombes JS, Jayasinghe R, Byrnes J, Furness J. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open access journal of sports medicine. 2018;9:1.

3. Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, Szwajcer A, Duhamel TA. Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre-to established hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Medicine. 2018 Sep 1;48(9):2127-42.

4. Wilson RA, Deasy W, Stathis C, Hayes A, Cooke M. Combining intermittent fasting with high intensity interval training reduces fat mass by increasing fat oxidation and mobilization. InAustralia and New Zealand Obesity Society and Breakthrough Discoveries 2018 Joint Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 16-18 October 2018. 2018

5. Ramos, Joyce S., et al. “The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Sports medicine 45.5 (2015): 679-692.

6. Ahlert M, Matzenbacher F, Albarello JC, Halmenschlager GH. Comparison of epoc and recovery energy expenditure between hiit and continuous aerobic exercise training. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 2019 Feb;25(1):20-3.

Dr. Kyle: Building Stronger Bones

When discussing bone health, we often talk about proper nutrition. Adequate vitamin D and calcium intake are usually recommended to enhance bone mineral density (BMD). What is not discussed as often is the role of exercise and weight training for increasing bone strength. A holistic approach looking at what we put IN our body as well as what we DO with our body is the key for building stronger bones.

As we age our body experiences several physiological changes. Our hormone levels change, muscle mass declines, and bones become less dense. Low bone density, otherwise known as osteopenia, increases our risk of fracture. Although we can bounce back from a slip or fall in our early years, a hip fracture in older individuals can have detrimental effects on quality of life. The good news is, there are important steps you can take to prevent or slow down the decline of BMD.

Research has demonstrated that healthy individuals and patients with osteoporosis can improve BMD with high-moderate impact activities and resistance training. A few examples of high impact exercises include step classes, jogging, and jumping jacks. Resistance or weight training on the other hand can include elastic band, pully, and free-weight based exercises. To put it simply, the more force you transmit through the bone, the more the bone will remodel and grow! Clinical judgment is needed to determine the intensity of force that each patient can tolerate.

Recent studies have found that high-intensity resistance training and impact training improves BMD and physical function in postmenopausal women. Low-intensity and light-resistance exercise programs are not enough to stimulate bone remodelling and improve BMD. Heavy multi-joint compound exercises such as squats and deadlifts induce extensive muscle recruitment and transmit greater force through the bones. In particular, these exercises will apply force through the lumbar spine and femoral neck, making them stronger and more resilient to fracture. Proper form and supervision are crucial when performing any high intensity or heavy loading activities.

Talk to a primary health care provider about your BMD and if an exercise program for developing BMD is right for you. Not only will exercise strengthen your bones, but it will have profound impacts on many other systems of the body as well. As always, if you have any question do not hesitate to contact me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca or visit my Instagram page @drkylearam!

Reference:

Sinaki M. Exercise for patients with established osteoporosis. InNon-Pharmacological Management of Osteoporosis 2017 (pp. 75-96). Springer, Cham.

Mounsey A, Jones A, Tybout C. Does a formal exercise program in postmenopausal women decrease osteoporosis and fracture risk?. Evidence-Based Practice. 2019 Apr 1;22(4):29-31.

Tips to Improve Your Running

Do you want to run farther? Run faster? Or simply run with greater ease? These tips are for you!

 

 

Cadence

• Try to run at a rate of 180steps/min. This will help decrease the force per stride on your knees, reduce risk of injury and minimize wear-and-tear on the joints.

Mid-foot Strike

• Leading foot should land under your center of mass. When you heel strike ahead of your center of mass it creates a backwards “braking force” that makes each stride less efficient and will slow you down.

Hip Stability

• The pelvis needs to be stable and hips should remain at the same level. If the hips are moving up and down with each stride, this may be an indication of glute weakness and poor muscular control.

Rotation

• Core should be stable and prevent rotation through the torso. Arms should swing straight back and forward and not side-to-side across the body.
TIP: your feet will follow the direction you swing your arms.

Bounce

• The force you generate should be propelling you forward and not upward. Reducing vertical oscillation will limit wasted energy.
TIP: less ground contact is optimal.

Hip Extension:

• Hips must be mobile enough to extend the leg back past your body. Proper glute activation will help extend the hip back and save the stress on your low back.

Try to incorporate one tip at a time into your daily or weekly run. If you have any questions on proper running technique feel free to email me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca!

Dr. Phil Shares: Why The Tight Hamstrings, and What Can We Do About Them

 

Why1-do-you-have-tight-hamstrings-header

Why Do our Hamstring muscles tend to tighten up  And more importantly, exactly how do you plan to loosen them up?

Well, you may be able to sprint 100 meters in under 12 seconds, or stay on cadence in 22 Minute Hard Corps without missing a beat, but there’s one movement that will humble even the fittest of fanatics: bending at the waist and reaching for the ground.

You want your fingers to reach the floor, but frustratingly, they probably stop short around your ankles, your shins, or even your knees. One reason for this may be tight hamstrings.

First things first. “Hamstrings” refers to the three muscles on the back of your thigh: the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris. Physiologically speaking, tight hamstrings refers to the anatomical shortening of the muscle belly — the center or “meat” of the muscle, explains physical therapist Rob Ziegelbaum, D.P.T., clinical director of Wall Street Physical Therapy in Manhattan.

Because the muscle belly has been shortened, there’s increased tension on the tendons, he says. This leads to less flexibility in your hamstrings, and less range of motion in the surrounding joints — the hip and the knee.

How Do Your Muscles and Tendons Shorten?

Think of them like rubber bands. Like rubber bands, tendons and muscles come with different levels of elasticity, and this is mainly thanks to genetics. “Some people are born with limited elasticity in their muscles and are, therefore, naturally less flexible,” says Ziegelbaum.

Women, incidentally, tend to be more flexible in general than men, and young children are more flexible than most adults, he says. But everyone can train to improve their flexibility as part of a well-balanced training regimen, according to the American College of Sports Medicine.

Genetically speaking, muscle length, tendon length, relative muscle and tendon length, tendon attachment points, and skeletal segment length all can play a role [in how flexible you are], says exercise physiologist Janet Hamilton, C.S.C.S., owner of Running Strong Professional Coaching in Atlanta.

All muscles and tendons have the potential to become more elastic and supple. The key to any stretching program is regularity. “For example, a gymnast who constantly does splits on a balance beam will adapt in such a way as to have relatively more flexibility than a long distance runner who works at a desk for a living,” says Hamilton.

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How Can Running Cause So Much Muscular Tension?

One of the most common culprits for tightening those hamstrings? Running. “I often see long-distance runners who gradually lose flexibility in hamstrings and calves,” says Hamilton.

Why is running so rough? Well, researchers aren’t actually entirely sure. Hamilton’s guess is that it stems from weak gluteal muscles, since the glutes and hamstrings work in synergy to propel you forward over the ground. “If one member of the team isn’t contributing as much as they should, then the other member of that team has to contribute more,” she adds. “This potentially leads to overuse and might be to blame for what we interpret as tightness.”

However, tight hamstrings and their attachments are not limited to runners. Pretty much every athlete (amateur or elite) that trains for athletic performance but doesn’t stretch thoroughly and effectively post-workout probably has tight hamstrings. “During and after a workout, our muscles tighten up in part to protect our joints and in part because of the depletion of water since dehydration tightens muscles,” Ziegelbaum says.

It’s not just the type of physical activity you do that determines how tight or loose your hamstrings will be; it’s also what you do throughout the day. “Tight hamstrings are a result of this adaptive shortening. If someone sits at a desk for prolonged periods, knees bent, hamstrings contracted, the muscle effectively changes to the required length, which is shorter than that of a person who is standing or stretching regularly,” Ziegelbaum explains.

Tight Hamstrings Often Lead to Lower Back Pain

Well, the obvious scaremongering answer is that it increases your risk of an incredibly painful partial or full tear of the hamstrings. But the bigger problem, Ziegelbaum says, isn’t actually in your hamstrings, but in those surrounding muscles.

Hamilton agrees. “Things in the human body are intricately related to one another. Movement at one segment often depends on something happening at another segment. If your hamstrings are tight, that’s going to affect the biomechanics of the two connecting joints, the knee and the hip (knee pain and tight hips). Tight hamstrings are often associated with a whole host of injuries, including various low back pain syndromes, knee injuries, and even plantar fasciitis,” Hamilton says.

why do you have tight hamstrings-stretch-inpost

In fact, a study published in the journal Foot & Ankle Specialist, researchers found found that having tight hamstrings makes you nearly nine times as likely to suffer from plantar fasciitis. Yikes!

Plus, tight hammies can actually hurt your athletic performance. “Muscles that are ‘tight’ are often weak as well,” Hamilton says. “If a muscle is weak, you’ll have to recruit more motor units to accomplish a task, which may increase fatigue… and a fatigued muscle cannot produce force as well as one that is not,” she adds.

How to Tend to Your Tight Hamstrings

You can increase your flexibility by standing up and stretching more often. Even better, upgrade to a standing desk if possible — but make sure it’s set up ergonomically or you risk adding posture problems and neck pain to your ailments, Ziegelbaum warns.

Exploring more formal and lengthy mobility work like yoga or Pilates classes is always a good idea. At the very least, though, you need to be stretching pre- and post-workout, say these experts. A dynamic (moving) stretch routine before you start sweating can help maintain muscle elasticity during the workout, and a longer stretch afterward can help counteract the activity-induced tightening, Ziegelbaum explains.

“I often encourage my athletes to do a variety of drills in their warm ups, similar to what you might see the Olympic track and field athletes doing prior to competitions: skips, hops, high-knees — anything that mimics the motion you’re about to do — but at lower intensity,” Hamilton says.

The most effective stretches otherwise? Studies from the National Institutes of Health found that active stretches (long-held postures through full range of motion) can help increase hamstring length in just 6-8 weeks.

There are dozens of safe, do-anywhere hamstring stretches in many Beachbody programs. Try them after every workout or before bedtime. Try a few after your next big workout!

Shared by Dr. Phil McAllister @ Forward Health

Thanks For Sharing the article Beachbody.com

Post Workout Massage–What You Should Do After Your Next Workout

We have all been there…..we went to the gym and did an endurance cycling class or went for a run and ran the hardest that we ever have and all that we can think about is how sore we are going to be the next day.  This muscle soreness is often what deters people from continuing their intense workout routines because they don’t want to be sore the next day.  But this does not have to be the case.  Having a massage after any  workout can ease post workout muscle soreness.  Did you know that even a ten minute massage after a training session or workout can improve your rebound time or post work out recovery? Check out this excellent article in Men’s Fitness  to see what the research says.

After a period of hard training or exercise  there will be an accumulation of waste material and possibly some micro trauma with slight swelling in the muscles. The tissues will also be nutritionally depleted and some may be in need of repair. By stimulating the blood circulation through the strained muscles with massage therapy, all these situations can be helped.  The waste is removed more quickly and completely and more fresh blood from the arteries arrives to supply the repair and nutritional needs. There should always be a rest period after exercise to allow the recovery process to take place, and a massage greatly improves the quality and effectiveness of such rest. It is the quality of rest that is the key to effective training and regular massage therapy treatments that enables more endurance workouts  at a higher level and with less injury.

By having a massage after your workout the conversation no longer has to be on how sore you are going to be, rather on how good you feel and how much quicker our muscles recovered so that you could duplicate the same workout the next day at the same intensity with no kick back pain.

So the next time your are running in the Forward Health neighbourhood at Preservation Park  or at your next cycling class at Movati fitness in Guelph,  why not consider working a massage therapy treatment into your workout routine?  Kick up the intensity in your workout without the worry of being sore for days later. After all , your massage therapy at Forward Health will take care of that.The-Function-of-a-Running-Shoe-18356134

The Function of A Running Shoe

Shared by Dr. Phil McAllister

The function of a running shoe is to protect the foot from the stress of running, while permitting you to achieve your maximum potential. Selecting the right shoe for your foot can be confusing without the proper knowledge.

People with low arches, called pronators, will need a shoe that provides stability. A shoe with good cushioning is important for people with high arches, called supinators.

There are three main features that you need to consider when selecting a running shoe: shape, construction, and midsole.

Shape

To determine the shape of the shoe, look at the sole. Draw a straight line from the middle of the heel to the top of the shoe. In a curve-shaped shoe, most comfortable for supinators, the line will pass through the outer half of the toes. A straight-shaped shoe will have a line that passes through the middle of the toes. These shoes are built to give pronators added stability.

Construction

Take out the insole and look at what type of stitching is used on the bottom. In board construction shoes, built specifically for pronators, the bottom of the shoe will not have any visible stitching. Combination shoes, appropriate for mild pronators or supinators, will have stitching that begins halfway. On slip-constructed shoes, you will see stitching running the entire length of the shoe providing the flexibility supinators need.

Midsole

Most of the cushioning and stability of a running shoe is determined by the midsole. A dual-density midsole provides shock absorption as well as some stability, perfect for pronators. Single density midsoles offer good cushioning but are not great at providing stability, making them better for supinators.

Keep in mind that a chiropractor can help you prevent running-related problems by assessing your gait, as well as the mobility of the joints in your feet, legs, pelvis and spine.

Thank you to The Ontario Chiropractic Association for Content