Dr. Kyle: High Intensity Interval Training!

I’m sure you’ve heard the hype about high intensity interval training (HIIT) – bursts of exertion separated by short periods of recovery – sound tough, right? That’s because it is. The attention around HIIT has provoked researchers to further investigate it’s physiological benefits, which have been promising.

The problem with most workout programs is lack of intensity. People putt around the gym for about an hour, jump from one machine to the next without breaking a sweat. What’s the problem? Nothing, if your goal is to build strength. But from a physical fitness and weight loss perspective, you are overlooking HIIT’s cardiovascular and fat-incinerating benefits.

HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to increase muscle and accelerate fat loss. Intervals of activity and rest can vary between 30 seconds to a few minutes. The duration and intervals can be modified depending on the individual and goal in mind. The objective is to create a fast-paced and physically demanding workout that challenges our threshold of exercise intensity.

So why HIIT vs. cardio?

HIIT is most commonly compared to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). MICT, also known as steady state cardio, consists of long periods of activity at constant intensity. For example, 45 minutes of jogging at 5km/h is considered MICT. Although it provides significant cardiovascular improvements and may be a favourite for endurance training, HIIT can offer more!! Remember, you can’t go wrong with increasing the intensity of exercise. Let’s compare!

With regards to that pesky body fat, HIIT significantly reduces abdominal and visceral fat in both men and women (1). High intensity training, above 90% peak heart rate, was more effective at reducing whole-body adipose tissue. Many studies show HIIT is superior to MICT in improving aerobic fitness (2). Cardiovascular measures (VO2 max, contractile function, ejection fraction, respiratory fitness and endothelial function) significantly improved with 7-12-week HIIT programs. This holds true for people who have previously suffered from a cardiac incident. Implementing HIIT under supervision during cardiac rehabilitation can improve quality of life by enhancing their cardiorespiratory fitness. No deaths or cardiac events occurred during HIIT programs across all recent studies. What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger, right?

Additionally, studies have demonstrated greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, glucose regulation, HDL cholesterol, and blood pressure with HIIT compared to MICT (2,3). Improved insulin sensitivity allows the body to utilize glucose more efficiently as energy, instead of being stored as fat! By implementing HIIT with intermittent fasting, the body utilizes fat stores for energy, increasing fat oxidation and mobilization (4). HIIT is also more effective than MICT at reducing oxidative stress and inflammation (5). These benefits are observed in subjects across all age categories. HIIT doesn’t discriminate; all can experience the health advantages of HIIT.

HIIT is extremely efficient because we experience what’s known as “excess post-exercise oxygen consumption,” or EPOC – meaning we reap the calorie-burning effects hours after our workout.

During intensive exercise, energy stores are quickly depleted. Our carbohydrate stores, oxygen and other essential compounds are exhausted, resulting in an energy deficit. After HIIT, we eventually reach our normal resting level of metabolic function. Carb stores are replaced (with an appropriate diet), oxygen levels will increase, and body temperature will return to normal (6). These processes require energy, explaining why we continue to burn calories after exercise. Even though HIIT and MICT both induce EPOC, HITT increases lipid metabolism to a greater extent AND is extremely time efficient (6).

So whether you want to call it HIIT, interval training, circuit training, etc., say hello to the most time efficient and beneficial exercise available. Combining HIIT with intermittent fasting and a wholesome diet, expect accelerated fat loss and physical fitness improvements. So what are you waiting for? Let’s turn up the intensity to 11!

References:

1. Maillard F, Pereira B, Boisseau N. Effect of high-intensity interval training on total, abdominal and visceral fat mass: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018 Feb 1;48(2):269-88.

2. Hannan AL, Hing W, Simas V, Climstein M, Coombes JS, Jayasinghe R, Byrnes J, Furness J. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open access journal of sports medicine. 2018;9:1.

3. Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, Szwajcer A, Duhamel TA. Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre-to established hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Medicine. 2018 Sep 1;48(9):2127-42.

4. Wilson RA, Deasy W, Stathis C, Hayes A, Cooke M. Combining intermittent fasting with high intensity interval training reduces fat mass by increasing fat oxidation and mobilization. InAustralia and New Zealand Obesity Society and Breakthrough Discoveries 2018 Joint Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 16-18 October 2018. 2018

5. Ramos, Joyce S., et al. “The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Sports medicine 45.5 (2015): 679-692.

6. Ahlert M, Matzenbacher F, Albarello JC, Halmenschlager GH. Comparison of epoc and recovery energy expenditure between hiit and continuous aerobic exercise training. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 2019 Feb;25(1):20-3.

Dr. Kyle: Posture Perfect

You can prevent slips and falls. You can reduce your risk of a motor vehicle accident. You can limit contact sports. One thing that you cannot avoid however, is gravity. If your body and spine are not aligned, the force of gravity will start to wreak havoc on your musculoskeletal system. Making sure we maintain proper posture throughout our work day is critical for longevity in our career. So how do we protect ourselves?

The secret to good posture is maintaining the spines natural curves. When standing, your head, shoulders, hips and ankles should all line up. When sitting, your ears, shoulders and hips should be in line and your buttocks should be at the back of the chair. Sit tall with your chest and head up.

Some tips for creating an ideal posture include:

• Stand tall with shoulders back
• Tuck your chin
• Brace the abdomen
• Squeeze your glutes
• Keep your knees slightly bent

Due to modern day technology, one of the most common signs of poor posture is anterior head carriage. This mean that the head is resting too far forward away from the body. We are not always cognisant of our head posture as we check our smart phones and work on our laptops. The farther our head protrudes forward, the greater the force on our neck. This can lead to chronic neck and upper back pain and lasting postural alterations.

One exercise I recommend to patients to reduce anterior head carriage are chin tucks. These can be done up against a wall or lying flat on your back. You simply bring your chin directly in towards the spine and hold. You can press gently into the wall or pillow to enhance the muscle contraction of your deep neck extensors. Now your spine will naturally carry the weight of your head and allow your neck and upper back muscles to relax. So keep your chin up and your pain levels down!

For more tips and tricks to enhance your posture, visit my Instagram page @drkylearam of email me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca.

Dr. Kyle: Tips For Sleeping Better

1. Make your bedroom your oasis. If you are going to invest in something, why not invest in a good mattress and pillow that you will spend almost a 1/3 of your life on. Complete your bed with comfy blankets and sheets.

2. Keep it dark. Shut off all alarm clocks, TV’s, phones etc. Make sure no LED light is being emitted. This may require you to unplug some electronics around your room. Black-out curtains are a must.

3. Control room temperature. Make sure you are not too hot or too cold. There is nothing worse than sweating all night under the covers while your body struggles to maintain optimal body temperature.

4. Stop consuming caffeine after 2pm. This ensures that the effects of caffeine will be long gone before your head hits the pillow. Try a decaf coffee in the afternoon to fight off cravings.

5. Don’t work out within 2 hours before bed. This will disrupt hormone rhythms and deprive your body of energy stores needed to repair your body as you sleep.

6. Meditate. A simple 5-10 minutes mediation or deep breathing routine will calm the nervous system and transition you from our fight-or-flight response to your rest-and-digest state.

7. Reduce exposure to blue light after the sun goes down. Change display settings on your phone or use computer programs to block out blue light at night.

8. Have a chamomile tea or small snack with raw-honey to maintain your blood sugar levels throughout the night.

Sweet Dreams!

Dr. Kyle: Torn ligament? Maybe not.

Knee pain can come in a variety of presentations. Whether from a sports injury, slip and fall, or out of the blue, no two knee injuries are completely alike. The extent to which tissues are damaged is specific to the patient’s genetics, lifestyle, trauma, and fitness level. A well-trained athlete may be quite high functioning even with a serious tear, while a mild injury may keep a very sedentary person out of commission for several months.

Often times I will hear “hey doc, I think I might have heard a pop and the inside of my knee really hurts!”. My first reaction is to suspect a ligament tear. Once examining the patient further however, orthopedic testing shows stable knee ligament testing, no swelling or redness, and no severe joint line tenderness. So what’s the deal?

Like most soft tissue injuries, ligaments can be damaged to varying degrees. In the clinical world, there are 3 grades of ligament tears. Grade 1 is mild ligament damage, grade 2 is moderate, and grade 3 is severe/ruptured ligament tear. Common symptoms of a complete tear include sudden onset of pain and severe swelling, joint instability, and impaired function. The truth is, disruption of tendon fibers can happen to varying degrees. Think of muscle strains and ligament sprains on a spectrum of structural damage from 0 to 100%. The higher percentage of damage, the longer time it will take to establish preinjury performance levels.

Fortunately, if ligament stability is determined to be adequate by a healthcare professional, a conservative trial of care will often resolve symptoms. Ligaments in the body have the natural ability to heal on their own. Healing consists of 3 distinct phases including the inflammatory phase, the reparative phase, and the remodelling phase. Simply put, fibrotic scaffolding will be laid down so newly formed collagen can connect the severed ends of the tear. It is important to seek proper medical attention so that rehabilitation can begin as soon as possible.

For injuries of this nature, treatment will often begin with controlled range of motion exercises. Other modalities such a laser and acupuncture are helpful for enhancing healing at this stage. As tensile strength of the ligament improves, the joint will be able to tolerate more load. Eventually strengthening exercises will be included into the plan of management and progressed with increasing difficulty.

So if you or someone you know is worried that their knee pain may need surgical intervention, make sure you get it assessed by a medical professional who specializes in musculoskeletal injuries. It may be quite reassuring to know that with the right tools and knowledge the body will be able to heal and adapt on its own.

For more information, please contact drkyle@forwardhealth.ca or visit my professional Instagram page @drkylearam.

References:
Woo SL, Abramowitch SD, Kilger R, Liang R. Biomechanics of knee ligaments: injury, healing, and repair. Journal of biomechanics. 2006 Jan 1;39(1):1-20.

Dr. Kyle: Building Stronger Bones

When discussing bone health, we often talk about proper nutrition. Adequate vitamin D and calcium intake are usually recommended to enhance bone mineral density (BMD). What is not discussed as often is the role of exercise and weight training for increasing bone strength. A holistic approach looking at what we put IN our body as well as what we DO with our body is the key for building stronger bones.

As we age our body experiences several physiological changes. Our hormone levels change, muscle mass declines, and bones become less dense. Low bone density, otherwise known as osteopenia, increases our risk of fracture. Although we can bounce back from a slip or fall in our early years, a hip fracture in older individuals can have detrimental effects on quality of life. The good news is, there are important steps you can take to prevent or slow down the decline of BMD.

Research has demonstrated that healthy individuals and patients with osteoporosis can improve BMD with high-moderate impact activities and resistance training. A few examples of high impact exercises include step classes, jogging, and jumping jacks. Resistance or weight training on the other hand can include elastic band, pully, and free-weight based exercises. To put it simply, the more force you transmit through the bone, the more the bone will remodel and grow! Clinical judgment is needed to determine the intensity of force that each patient can tolerate.

Recent studies have found that high-intensity resistance training and impact training improves BMD and physical function in postmenopausal women. Low-intensity and light-resistance exercise programs are not enough to stimulate bone remodelling and improve BMD. Heavy multi-joint compound exercises such as squats and deadlifts induce extensive muscle recruitment and transmit greater force through the bones. In particular, these exercises will apply force through the lumbar spine and femoral neck, making them stronger and more resilient to fracture. Proper form and supervision are crucial when performing any high intensity or heavy loading activities.

Talk to a primary health care provider about your BMD and if an exercise program for developing BMD is right for you. Not only will exercise strengthen your bones, but it will have profound impacts on many other systems of the body as well. As always, if you have any question do not hesitate to contact me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca or visit my Instagram page @drkylearam!

Reference:

Sinaki M. Exercise for patients with established osteoporosis. InNon-Pharmacological Management of Osteoporosis 2017 (pp. 75-96). Springer, Cham.

Mounsey A, Jones A, Tybout C. Does a formal exercise program in postmenopausal women decrease osteoporosis and fracture risk?. Evidence-Based Practice. 2019 Apr 1;22(4):29-31.

Dr. Kyle: Manipulation and Mobilization for Neck Pain

An estimated 66% of the population will suffer from neck pain in their lifetime (1). Neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions treated by healthcare professionals. Often patients will report pain due to sleeping awkwardly, turning their head too fast, or reaching for something overhead. Whatever the mechanism, neck pain accounts for a significant proportion of sick leave, healthcare costs and lost productivity. Chiropractors have been at the forefront of treating neck pain for decades, and the results speak for themselves.

What does the evidence suggest?

Previous systematic reviews on chronic mechanical neck pain have provided substantial evidence for the effectiveness of chiropractic care. Both spinal manipulation and mobilization have been shown to be a viable option of care as compared to other standard treatment methods (2).

A recent systematic review by Coulter et. al. compared spinal manipulation and mobilization to other active modalities such as acupuncture, massage, and exercise to name a few (3). The study looked at patient outcomes such as pain, disability and health related quality of life (HRQol). They found that many previous reviews regarding non-specific neck pain reported evidence in favor of manipulation and mobilization. Other reviews concluded that manual therapies in conjunction with exercise provided superior results as compared to manual therapy alone (4).

As with many musculoskeletal conditions, it appears that a multi-modal approach is best. At this point in time, there is moderate evidence to support manipulation and mobilization for the treatment of chronic nonspecific neck pain in terms of pain and function. It appears that some movement and active rehabilitation is better for patient recovery then complete rest. More studies are still required to look at the benefits of chiropractic manual therapies long term.

To some, these conclusions may not be overwhelming, but research like this is what continues to carry the chiropractic profession in a positive direction. It is exciting to know that chiropractors and researchers alike are looking into the efficacy and safety of chiropractic care so we can better treat our patients and our community.

If you or someone you love is suffering with lingering neck pain, it may be time to schedule a comprehensive chiropractic exam to get to the root of the problem. As always, if you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca or visit my professional Instagram page @drkylearam.

References:

1. Cote P, Cassidy JD, Carroll L; The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey. The prevalence of neck pain and related disability in Saskatchewan adults. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1998; 23:1689-1698

2. Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans RL, Bouter LM. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: A systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Spine J 2004; 4:335-356.

3. Herman, P. M. (2019). Manipulation and Mobilization for Treating Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for an Appropriateness Panel. Pain Physician, 22, E55-E70.

4. Brison RJ, Hartling L, Dostaler S, LegerA, Rowe BH, Stiell I, Pickett W. A randomized controlled trial of an educational intervention to prevent the chronic pain of whiplash associated disorders following rear-end motor vehicle collisions. Spine 2005; 30:1799-1807.

Dr. Kyle: The Facts On Foam Rolling

Foam rolling or self-myofascial release is a common technique that is used to reduce the sensation of muscle soreness. It is most often performed by placing a foam roller on the ground and rolling a particular muscle out using your bodyweight to compress the tissue. This has been used extensively in the past decade as a form of muscle recovery pre or post workout.

Is foam rolling all its hyped up to be?

I have recently come across some not-so-hot reviews on foam rolling and its effects on muscle recovery and performance. Before coming to any conclusion, I decided to consult the latest research.

Here is a short list of the potential Pros and Cons of foam rolling to help you decide for yourself:

Cons:

• Foam rolling can apply excessive pressure to the tissue. Too much pressure can cause muscle and nerve cells to rupture. Foam rolling with small diameter rollers or lacrosse balls can exceed tolerable cell pressure (1).
• Foam rolling will not break down scar tissue. Scaring is produced by strong fibrotic connections between cells that can withstand forces produced by self-myofascial release techniques.
• Foam rolling has little effect on increasing mobility and may even increase pain in the process.

Pros:

• Rolling can speed up recovery. Extended foam rolling sessions can increase blood flow to the area and enhance nutrient exchange and clearing of cellular debris.
• Reduces inflammation and causes draining of lymphatic pooling.
• Foam rolling may have minimal positive effects on sprint times and overall athletic performance (2).
• May increase proprioception (joint position sense) immediately prior to exercise (3).
• Foam rolling releases tightness. Sustained external pressure stimulates the nervous system to decrease muscle tone.

Remember, this is just the tip of the iceberg. There are tons of information out there on foam rolling, some good and some not so good. Much of the research I read showed conflicting results making it difficult to draw conclusions. Here is a list of my best recommendations:

• Keep it light! Gentle-moderate pressure will generate positive stimulus without causing cell damage.
• Target specific areas of muscle stiffness to enhance recovery and decrease muscle tone.
• Foam roll after your workout to decrease inflammation.
• Supplement foam rolling with stretching, corrective exercises, muscle activation and soft tissue therapy techniques.

Have questions? Visit my Instagram page @drkylearam or email me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca for more information!

https://www.instagram.com/drkylearam/

References:

1. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D., Guillou, L., Cornat, F., Lafaurie-Janvore, J., Babataheri, A., de Langre, E., … & Husson, J. (2016). Mechanical criterion for the rupture of a cell membrane under compression. Biophysical journal, 111(12), 2711-2721.

2. Miller, K. L., Costa, P. B., Coburn, J. W., & Brown, L. E. (2019). THE EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON MAXIMAL SPRINT PERFORMANCE AND RANGE OF MOTION. Journal of Australian Strength & Conditioning, 27(01), 15-26.

3. David, E., Amasay, T., Ludwig, K., & Shapiro, S. (2019). The Effect of Foam Rolling of the Hamstrings on Proprioception at the Knee and Hip Joints. International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(1), 343-354.

Dr. Kyle: 5 Tips To Boost Testosterone

Feeling slowed down? Always tired? Dwindling sex drive? These may be signs that you are suffering from low testosterone.

You may think that supplementing with testosterone is exclusive to hardcore bodybuilders. Social media is often flooded with testosterone boosting supplements that are marketed to increase muscle mass and improve physique.

Whatever the reason, more and more average Joes are turning to testosterone supplementation. According to recent studies, an increasing number of men are being diagnosed with hypogonadism. After discovering that their hormone levels are below average, many turn to their family doctor to start hormone replacement therapy. Others are looking to boost their levels naturally through diet, exercise and lifestyle modifications.

Here are 5 simple tips to naturally boost testosterone:

1. Exercise

• Not only will exercise improve muscle strength, bone density and balance, regular physical activity will boost serum testosterone levels as well. Weight training and high intensity interval training are the most effective forms of exercise to increase testosterone.

2. Diet

• Get a sufficient and healthy balance of proteins, fats and carbs. Eating lots of high-quality proteins will improve testosterone levels and enhance fat loss. Don’t over eat and don’t restrict food intake for too long either. Some testosterone boosting foods include oysters, tuna, almonds, egg yolks and beef.

3. Sleep

• Sufficient hours of sleep will vary person to person. It is recommended that you get 7-9 hours of sleep per night as a young adult. As we age this number will drop. Those that sleep <4 hours per night are often testosterone deficient. Men who sleep 5-6 hours per night have testosterone levels equivalent to men 10 years older! Must I continue? Sleep!

4. Minimize stress

• Research has shown that long periods of stress lead to chronically high cortisol levels. Too much cortisol in the system causes a reduction in testosterone. Stress often leads to over eating and accumulation of fat, thereby lowering testosterone levels further. Consider meditation or finding an activity you really enjoy. Be sure to utilize the strategies above to keep your stress in check.

5. Supplement

• A number of herbal supplements may help reduce symptoms associated with low testosterone. In addition to increasing testosterone levels, the herb “Ashwagandha” is thought to reduce stress, improve brain function, lower blood sugar and reduce inflammation. Ginger extract may produce similar improvements. Prohormones such as Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia, and icariin (horny goat weed) have not demonstrated significant improvements in testosterone in human trials.

Have any questions or concerns? Contact me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca and visit @drkylearam on Instagram and facebook.

References:

Kovac, J. R., Pan, M., Arent, S., & Lipshultz, L. I. (2016). Dietary adjuncts for improving testosterone levels in hypogonadal males. American journal of men’s health, 10(6), NP109-NP117.

Carol S. Johnston, Sherrie L. Tjonn, Pamela D. Swan; High-Protein, Low-Fat Diets Are Effective for Weight Loss and Favorably Alter Biomarkers in Healthy Adults, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 3, 1 March 2004, Pages 586–591, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.3.586

SamuelMelamed*†UrsulaUgarten‡ArieShirom§LunaKahana∥YehudaLerman†PaulFroom*† Chronic burnout, somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels Journal of Psychosomatic Research Volume 46, Issue 6, June 1999, Pages 591-598

Walker, M. P. (2017). Why we sleep: Unlocking the power of sleep and dreams.

D. C. Cumming, M. E. Quigley, S. S. C. Yen; Acute Suppression of Circulating Testosterone Levels by Cortisol in Men, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 57, Issue 3, 1 September 1983, Pages 671–673, https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-57-3-671

Ambiye, V. R., Langade, D., Dongre, S., Aptikar, P., Kulkarni, M., & Dongre, A. (2013). Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2013, 571420.

Dr. Kyle: The Consensus On Coffee

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages around the world. In the US, 64% of adults report drinking at least one cup of coffee per day. That’s a lot of coffee!

Many people choose coffee as their drink of choice for the wakefulness they experience due to the effects of caffeine. But how does all this coffee effect our health? As it turns out, coffee may actually have other important benefits than just getting us going in the morning.

A number of recent studies have focused on the protective effects of coffee for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Habitual coffee consumption has been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular death and associated adverse outcomes such as coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and stroke.

Interestingly, healthy men and women from the ages 55-74 who consumed greater or equal to 2 cups of coffee a day showed about a 25% lower risk of CVD for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee.

Regular coffee consumption also appears to protect against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Some studies suggest it may even lower the risk of liver disease and cancer.

So what’s the secret?

Coffee is rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds act as potent antioxidants and help improve glucose metabolism and vascular function. One polyphenol in particular, chlorogenic acid, significantly reduces chronic inflammation.

That being said, excessive coffee consumption has also been associated with developing insomnia, anxiety, headaches and palpitations, largely due to the high caffeine content. For some people, large doses of caffeine will wreak havoc on their adrenals and lead to chronically elevated cortisol levels.

So what are my recommendation?

• Do not drink caffeinated coffee after 2pm.
• Some cream (or grass-fed butter) is ok, stay away from adding granulated sugar.
• Be mindful of your caffeine intake.
• Buy “washed” instead of “natural process” coffee beans
• Look for high quality coffee beans from Central America, grown at high altitude.

Last step: Enjoy your morning coffee guilt free. You may even notice a boost in energy and greater focus throughout the day.

References:

van Dongen LH, Mölenberg FJ, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Kromhout D, Geleijnse JM. Coffee consumption after myocardial infarction and risk of cardiovascular mortality: a prospective analysis in the Alpha Omega Cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017 Oct 1;106(4):1113-20.

Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, Sciacca S, Pajak A, Martínez-González MA, Giovannucci EL, Galvano F. Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: A dose-response meta-analysis.

O’Keefe JH, DiNicolantonio JJ, Lavie CJ. Coffee for cardioprotection and longevity. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2018 Feb 21.

Dr. Kyle: Why You Should Use The Sauna

Everyone enjoys a day at the spa for some much-needed relaxation, but did you know that time spent in the sauna may actually increase muscle gains?

Originating in Finland, this traditional passive heat therapy is becoming increasing popular world-wide. Saunas are often used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain as well as headaches. Recent evidence has suggested benefits for high-blood pressure, neurocognitive diseases and pulmonary conditions.

Emerging studies have found a protective effect for cardiovascular disease with regular sauna use for both men and women. It turns out, the more you use the sauna the better. More time spent sweating it out, the more health benefits!

Need any more reasons to hop in the sauna?

Sauna use has also been associated with increased net protein synthesis. This is why amenities such as saunas and steam rooms have become more common place in gym and fitness facilities. After your workout may be the best time to jump in the sauna and here’s why:

1. Intense short-term heat exposure stimulates the production of heat shock proteins that reduce muscle degeneration cause by oxidative stress.
2. Produce Growth hormone for increased lean muscle mass.
3. Increased NO (nitric oxide) availability to promote blood flow and circulation.
4. Decrease inflammatory pathway activity and free radical production.
5. Improve insulin sensitivity, allowing your body to utilize glucose more efficiently.
6. Enhance the production of BDNF (brain derived neurotropic factor) which synthesizes new brain cells.

Essentially, saunas stimulate the bodies autonomic nervous system in order to maintain a constant core body temperature in extreme heat. Short durations of heat stress induces adaptive mechanisms similar to exercise and have profound physiological effects.

It has also been found to help with anxiety, depression and improve parasympathetic function! Who doesn’t want a little extra mental clarity in their life.

For any questions or comments please email me at drkyle@forwardhealth.ca and be sure to follow my Instagram and Facebook page @drkylearam.

References:

Hussain, J., & Cohen, M. (2018). Clinical Effects of Regular Dry Sauna Bathing: A Systematic Review. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2018, 1857413. doi:10.1155/2018/1857413

Laukkanen, T., Kunutsor, S. K., Khan, H., Willeit, P., Zaccardi, F., & Laukkanen, J. A. (2018). Sauna bathing is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and improves risk prediction in men and women: a prospective cohort study. BMC medicine, 16(1), 219. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1198-0